Anatomical ROI analysis
This tutorial gives a brief introduction to anatomical ROI analysis which includes working with label files, extracting ROI measures from the anatomical data, group statistics etc.
If You're at an Organized Course
If you are taking one of the formally organized courses, everything has been set up for you on the provided laptop. The only thing you will need to do is run the following commands in every new terminal window (aka shell) you open throughout this tutorial. Copy and paste the commands below to get started:
setenv SUBJECTS_DIR $TUTORIAL_DATA/buckner_data/tutorial_subjs/group_analysis_tutorial cd $SUBJECTS_DIR
To copy: Highlight the command in the box above, right click and select copy (or use keyboard shortcut Ctrl+c), then use the middle button of your mouse to click inside the terminal window (this will paste the command). Press enter to run the command.
These two commands set the SUBJECTS_DIR variable to the directory where the data is stored and then navigates into this directory. You can now skip ahead to the tutorial (below the gray line).
If You're not at an Organized Course
If you are NOT taking one of the formally organized courses, then to follow this exercise exactly be sure you've downloaded the tutorial data set before you begin. If you choose not to download the data set you can follow these instructions on your own data, but you will have to substitute your own specific paths and subject names. These are the commands that you need to run before getting started:
tcsh source your_freesurfer_dir/SetUpFreeSurfer.csh setenv SUBJECTS_DIR $TUTORIAL_DATA/buckner_data/tutorial_subjs/group_analysis_tutorial cd $SUBJECTS_DIR
Notice the command to open tcsh. If you are already running the tcsh command shell, then the 'tcsh' command is not necessary. If you are not using the tutorial data you should set your SUBJECTS_DIR to the directory in which the recon(s) of the subject(s) you will use for this tutorial are located.
Relationship between segmentation, parcellation and LookUp Table (LUT)
In this exercise, you will examine a segmentation, parcellation, and color lookup table to understand how they are related.
Open the subject in tkmedit using the following command:
tkmedit 004 orig.mgz -aux aparc+aseg.mgz \ -seg aparc+aseg.mgz $FREESURFER_HOME/FreeSurferColorLUT.txt
Open another terminal to load the subject in tksurfer, using the following command.
setenv SUBJECTS_DIR $TUTORIAL_DATA/buckner_data/tutorial_subjs/group_analysis_tutorial cd $SUBJECTS_DIR tksurfer 004 lh inflated -annot aparc.annot
Finally, run the following command to display the contents of LUT (in another new terminal window)
You can hit the 'Page Up' and 'Page Down' buttons to see the rest of the file. Or click here to view the contents of the file. (To exit the less command, hit the 'q' button.)
Things to do -- Navigating between tkmedit and LUT:
- Click on a point on the image loaded in tkmedit.
- See the structure name in the tkmedit Tools window (under the Cursor section).
- Look at the Aux (aparc+aseg.mgz) value in the tkmedit Tools window. For example, it may say 1024.
- Find that value in the LUT, which you have opened using the command mentioned above.
- Verify that it is the same structure as listed in tkmedit.
Things to do -- Navigating between tksurfer, tkmedit and LUT:
- Click on a point in tksurfer in the superior temporal gyrus. If you don't know it's location, you can hover over the different areas to see their label underneath the Mouse section of the Tools window.
- Note that the name displayed in the tksurfer Tools window does not have lh or rh in it. This is because you loaded only one hemisphere.
In tksurfer, click on the Save Point button
In tkmedit, click on Goto Point button , which takes the cursor to the ROI. Zoom in to see the cursor.
- Verify the structure name in the tkmedit Tools window. Note that it DOES have an lh or rh in it.
- The Aux (aparc+aseg.mgz) value should be 1030.
- In FreeSurferColorLUT.txt, verify that 1030 is ctx-lh-superiortemporal
You can close tkmedit and tksurfer once you are done. To get out of the less command, type 'q' for quit.
This section gives the details of commands to load an existing label file in text editor, tkmedit, and tksurfer.
To map a label, such as the lh.BA45.label, from the fsaverage subject to a target subject, run
cd $SUBJECTS_DIR mri_label2label \ --srcsubject fsaverage \ --srclabel fsaverage/label/lh.BA45.label \ --trgsubject 004 \ --trglabel 004/label/lh.BA45.label \ --hemi lh \ --regmethod surface
Although we used an existing label for the example above, you could draw a new label on fsaverage and map that to all your subjects so that it will appear in the same cortical region. To take a look at the contents of that newly created label file, run:
To load the label in tkmedit, first load the subject you want to work on, in tkmedit.
tkmedit 004 orig.mgz
Then on the menu bar at the top of tkmedit tools window, go to File --> Label --> Load Label --> Browse --> lh.BA45.label and hit 'OK' in both windows. The label is visible in coronal slice 153.
This label can be edited when the Select Voxels button is chosen. Use the middle mouse button to add to the label. Use the right mouse button to delete from the label. If this was your own subject, you would want to make sure you save your edits by going to File --> Label --> Save Label but it's not necessary for this tutorial.
To load the label in tksurfer, first load the subject (in another terminal window).
tksurfer 004 lh inflated
On the menu bar at the top of tksurfer tools window, go to File --> Label --> Load Label --> Browse --> lh.BA45.label
Information on how to create and edit labels in tksurfer can be found on this wiki. You don't have to do this for the tutorial, but please feel free to take a look if you are interested.
Individual Stats files
During the normal FreeSurfer processing stream, via the recon-all script some statistical output files are generated. They are kept in each subjects' stats/ subdirectory and are generated for the subcortical segmentation (aseg) and the cortical parcellation (aparc). These tables include information on each labeled region for the individual subject.
The statistical output from the subcortical segmentation, called aseg.stats, is a regular text file and will contain the volumes of specific structures. For example, you can obtain information such as the volume of left hippocampus and its mean intensity from this file.
cd $SUBJECTS_DIR/004/stats less aseg.stats
At the head of the text file there will be information about the command that was run, the version used, the user who ran it and a time stamp. Following this there is information about the volume of the entire brain.
The next section of this file defines the column headers, field name, and units for the rest of the table. We can expect to see the Segmentation Id, Number of Voxels, Volume, Structure Name, Intensity normMean, Intensity normStdDev, Intensity normMin, Intensity normMax, and Intensity normRange for each entry in the table.
The remainder of the table shows this information for all the structures that are labeled in the aseg.
# Title Segmentation Statistics # # generating_program mri_segstats # cvs_version $Id: mri_segstats.c,v 220.127.116.11 2010/07/26 16:19:29 greve Exp $ # cmdline mri_segstats --seg mri/aseg.mgz --sum stats/aseg.stats --pv mri/norm.mgz --empty --excludeid 0 --excl-ctxgmwm --supratent --subcortgray --in mri/norm.mgz --in-intensity-name norm --in-intensity-units MR --etiv --surf-wm-vol --surf-ctx-vol --totalgray --ctab /autofs/cluster/freesurfer/test/subjects/x86_64/buckner_data/group_study_fs5.0.0/freesurfer-Linux-centos4_x86_64-stable-pub-v5.0.0/ASegStatsLUT.txt --subject 004 # sysname Linux # hostname compute-0-85.local # machine x86_64 # user nicks # anatomy_type volume # # SUBJECTS_DIR /autofs/cluster/freesurfer/test/subjects/x86_64/buckner_data/group_study_fs5.0.0 # subjectname 004 # Measure lhCortex, lhCortexVol, Left hemisphere cortical gray matter volume, 244507.719492, mm^3 # Measure rhCortex, rhCortexVol, Right hemisphere cortical gray matter volume, 249102.710448, mm^3 # Measure Cortex, CortexVol, Total cortical gray matter volume, 493610.429940, mm^3 # Measure lhCorticalWhiteMatter, lhCorticalWhiteMatterVol, Left hemisphere cortical white matter volume, 260412.984375, mm^3 # Measure rhCorticalWhiteMatter, rhCorticalWhiteMatterVol, Right hemisphere cortical white matter volume, 256990.187500, mm^3 # Measure CorticalWhiteMatter, CorticalWhiteMatterVol, Total cortical white matter volume, 517403.171875, mm^3 # Measure SubCortGray, SubCortGrayVol, Subcortical gray matter volume, 183995.000000, mm^3 # Measure TotalGray, TotalGrayVol, Total gray matter volume, 677605.429940, mm^3 # Measure SupraTentorial, SupraTentorialVol, Supratentorial volume, 1189372.762911, mm^3 # Measure IntraCranialVol, ICV, Intracranial Volume, 1792580.562856, mm^3 # SegVolFile mri/aseg.mgz # SegVolFileTimeStamp 2010/08/12 21:00:31 # ColorTable /autofs/cluster/freesurfer/test/subjects/x86_64/buckner_data/group_study_fs5.0.0/freesurfer-Linux-centos4_x86_64-stable-pub-v5.0.0/ASegStatsLUT.txt # ColorTableTimeStamp 2010/08/11 23:17:47 # InVolFile mri/norm.mgz # InVolFileTimeStamp 2010/08/12 16:27:10 # InVolFrame 0 # PVVolFile mri/norm.mgz # PVVolFileTimeStamp 2010/08/12 16:27:10 # Excluding Cortical Gray and White Matter # ExcludeSegId 0 2 3 41 42 # VoxelVolume_mm3 1 - - - # TableCol 1 ColHeader Index # TableCol 1 FieldName Index # TableCol 1 Units NA # TableCol 2 ColHeader SegId # TableCol 2 FieldName Segmentation Id # TableCol 2 Units NA # TableCol 3 ColHeader NVoxels # TableCol 3 FieldName Number of Voxels # TableCol 3 Units unitless # TableCol 4 ColHeader Volume_mm3 # TableCol 4 FieldName Volume # TableCol 4 Units mm^3 # TableCol 5 ColHeader StructName # TableCol 5 FieldName Structure Name # TableCol 5 Units NA - - - # ColHeaders Index SegId NVoxels Volume_mm3 StructName normMean normStdDev normMin normMax normRange 1 4 31149 31149.0 Left-Lateral-Ventricle 21.2596 10.2600 6.0000 84.0000 78.0000 2 5 1360 1360.0 Left-Inf-Lat-Vent 37.3251 12.8335 12.0000 83.0000 71.0000 3 7 12845 12845.0 Left-Cerebellum-White-Matter 87.6037 7.6264 40.0000 124.0000 84.0000 4 8 48371 48371.0 Left-Cerebellum-Cortex 60.9231 9.6107 19.0000 107.0000 88.0000 5 10 7197 7197.0 Left-Thalamus-Proper 85.0192 11.4083 21.0000 118.0000 97.0000 6 11 5829 5829.0 Left-Caudate 71.9549 11.1561 28.0000 109.0000 81.0000 7 12 8389 8389.0 Left-Putamen 77.1418 9.1256 26.0000 107.0000 81.0000 - - -
The statistical output from the cortical parcellation, called lh.aparc.stats and rh.aparc.stats, is a regular text file and will contain the thickness of specific structures. For example, you can obtain information such as, how big is left superior temporal gyrus and its average thickness from this file.
cd $SUBJECTS_DIR/004/stats less lh.aparc.stats
At the head of the text file there will be information about the command that was run, the version used, the user who ran it and a time stamp. Following this there is information about the volume of the entire brain. This shows the number of vertices in the cortex (NumVert), and the surface area of the cortex (SurfArea). This part of the file also tells us that the lh.aparc.annot is being used as the annotation file (AnnotationFile ../label/lh.aparc.annot).
The next section of this file defines the column headers, field name, and units for the rest of the table. We can expect to see the Structure Name, Number of Vertices, Surface Area, Gray Matter Volume, Average Thickness, Thickness StDev, Integrated Rectified Mean Curvature, Integrated Rectified Gaussian Curvature, Folding Index and Intrinsic Curvature Index for each entry in the table.
The remainder of the table shows this information for all the structures that are labeled in the aparc.
# Table of FreeSurfer cortical parcellation anatomical statistics # # CreationTime 2010/08/13-05:08:41-GMT # generating_program mris_anatomical_stats # cvs_version $Id: mris_anatomical_stats.c,v 1.68 2010/05/28 20:36:45 nicks Exp $ # mrisurf.c-cvs_version $Id: mrisurf.c,v 1.678 2010/05/28 21:22:21 rpwang Exp $ # cmdline mris_anatomical_stats -mgz -cortex ../label/lh.cortex.label -f ../stats/lh.aparc.stats -b -a ../label/lh.aparc.annot -c ../label/aparc.annot.ctab 004 lh white # sysname Linux # hostname compute-0-85.local # machine x86_64 # user nicks # # SUBJECTS_DIR /autofs/cluster/freesurfer/test/subjects/x86_64/buckner_data/group_study_fs5.0.0 # anatomy_type surface # subjectname 004 # hemi lh # AnnotationFile ../label/lh.aparc.annot # AnnotationFileTimeStamp 2010/08/13 01:08:34 # Measure Cortex, NumVert, Number of Vertices, 142825, unitless # Measure Cortex, SurfArea, Surface Area, 95354.8, mm^2 # Measure Cortex, MeanThickness, Mean Thickness, 2.31065, mm - - - # TableCol 1 ColHeader StructName # TableCol 1 FieldName Structure Name # TableCol 1 Units NA # TableCol 2 ColHeader NumVert # TableCol 2 FieldName Number of Vertices # TableCol 2 Units unitless # TableCol 3 ColHeader SurfArea # TableCol 3 FieldName Surface Area # TableCol 3 Units mm^2 # TableCol 4 ColHeader GrayVol # TableCol 4 FieldName Gray Matter Volume # TableCol 4 Units mm^3 # TableCol 5 ColHeader ThickAvg # TableCol 5 FieldName Average Thickness # TableCol 5 Units mm - - - # ColHeaders StructName NumVert SurfArea GrayVol ThickAvg ThickStd MeanCurv GausCurv FoldInd CurvInd bankssts 1630 1133 2693 2.331 0.489 0.137 0.042 19 2.9 caudalanteriorcingulate 1248 805 2396 2.657 0.674 0.171 0.105 37 4.5 caudalmiddlefrontal 3336 2205 6275 2.528 0.562 0.142 0.059 42 7.6 cuneus 2513 1597 3129 1.806 0.423 0.174 0.119 128 8.5 entorhinal 566 403 1837 3.268 0.679 0.139 0.067 8 1.6 - - -
Group stats files
This section will run you through using the stats directory in the subjects to perform group stats of certain structures that may be of interest to your study. The following commands will help you combine the data of the subjects you are analyzing into one table that will be easily read into a spreadsheet program. We have considered 6 subjects as examples (004, 021, 040, 067, 080, 092) in the following sections.
Set your SUBJECTS_DIR to the path where you have your subjects to be analyzed.
setenv SUBJECTS_DIR $TUTORIAL_DATA/buckner_data/tutorial_subjs/group_analysis_tutorial cd $SUBJECTS_DIR
Table of segmentation volumes
This section explains how to create a table of segmentation volumes using the 6 subjects mentioned above.
asegstats2table --subjects 004 021 040 067 080 092 \ --segno 11 17 18 \ --tablefile aseg.vol.table
where 11, 17 and 18 correspond to the segmentation label of left caudate, left hippocampus and left amygdala respectively. (You can create a table with all of the labels, not just these three, by omitting the --segno part.)
Click here if you would like to view the list of labels and their corresponding ID numbers again.
The file aseg.vol.table is your output - a text file consisting of the subjects mentioned in the command above and the values for the structures requested. The information in this text file is formatted so it can be easily imported into a spreadsheet program (often used as input for many statistical analysis programs). If you do the ls command, you should see that the text file aseg.vol.table has been created. To see what the file looks like, do:
To to load the resulting table into a spreadsheet, run:
Note: the gnumeric command is meant to be run on a Linux machine. Mac users could install OpenOffice 3.0 to open the table in a spreadsheet and run the command
About the subject IDs, you'll notice that in the examples we've considered here, each subject is a 3 digit number. Therefore gnumeric thinks it is a number and removes leading 0s. This is a gnumeric issue but probably it would not happen if subject names had characters in them instead of integers.
Table of segmentation mean intensities
Purpose of this section is to demonstrate how you can change what measure you collect for your spreadsheet from volume to mean intensity using the asegstats2table command.
asegstats2table \ --subjects 004 021 040 067 080 092 \ --segno 11 17 18 \ --meas mean \ --tablefile aseg.mean-intensity.table
Things to do:
- You can load the table into a spreadsheet as explained in the previous section.
Refer to the file FreeSurferColorLUT.txt for the segmentation labels and the corresponding subcortical structures.
For tutorial purposes, click here to view the contents of the file.
Table of white matter parcellation volumes
The purpose of this section is to show how you can change which segmentation atlas you get stats from (and thus which structures):
asegstats2table \ --subjects 004 021 040 067 080 092 \ --segno 3007 3021 3022 4022 \ --stats wmparc.stats \ --tablefile wmparc.vol.table
Things to do:
- You can load the table into a spreadsheet.
For tutorial purposes, click here to view the contents of the file
Table of the surface area of each cortical parcellation in the Desikan atlas
This section explains how to create a table of the surface area of each cortical parcellation in the Desikan atlas (surface area is the default measure).
aparcstats2table --hemi lh \ --subjects 004 021 040 067 080 092 \ --tablefile lh.aparc.area.table
You can now load the resulting table into a spreadsheet.
Table of the average thickness of each cortical parcellation in the Destrieux atlas
The purpose of this section is to show how to change the summary measure and the parcellation atlas.
aparcstats2table --hemi lh \ --subjects 004 021 040 067 080 092 \ --meas thickness \ --parc aparc.a2009s \ --tablefile lh.aparc.a2009.thickness.table
You can now load the resulting table into a spreadsheet.